Mold design and construction requires special attention for optimal product quality and reliable molding. A detailed specification is required in advance:

  • product shape and tolerances
  • mold in relation to molding equipment
  • parting lines; venting
  • number of cavities
  • runner lay-out and gating system
  • ejection system
  • cooling system lay-out -type of tool steel
  • surface finish.

Injection molding is a manufacturing process where plastic is forced into a mold cavity under pressure. A mold cavity is essentially a negative of the part being produced. The cavity is filled with plastic, and the plastic changes phase to a solid, resulting in a positive. Typically injection pressures range from 5000 to 20,000 psi. Because of the high pressures involved, the mold must be clamped shut during injection and cooling. Clamping forces are measured in tons.

Abbreviations for the Plastics Industry 
Plastics, Preproducts and Rubbers

AASMethacrylate-acrylic-styrenPEEKPolyaryletherketone
ABSAcrylonitrile-butadiene-styrenePEIPolyetherimide
ACMAcrylic acid ester rubberPEO, PEOXPolyethylene oxide
ADCAllyl diglycol carbonatePEPAPolyester block amides
AESAcrylonitrile-ethylene- propylene-styrenePEPPolyethylene-propylene
AMMAAcrylonitrile-methyl methacrylatePESPolyester sulphone
ANMAcrylic acid ester rubberPET, PETPPolyethylene terephthalate
APPAtactic polypropylenePETGPolyethylene terephthalate, glycol comonomer
ASAAcrylonitrile-styrene-acrylic esterPFPhenol formaldehyde
AXSAcrylonitrile-styrene- terpolymersPFAPerfluoro alkoxy alkaline
BRCis-1, 4-polybutadiene rubberPFEPPolytetrafluorethylene- perfluoro-propylene
BSButadiene-styrene rubberPFFPhenol-furfural
CACellulose acetatePIPolyimide
CABCellulose acetate-butyratePIBPolyisobutylene
CAPCelluose acetate propionatePIBIButyl rubber
CFCresol formaldehydePIRPolyisocyanate
CHREpichlorhydrinePMCAPolymethyl – chloroacrylate
CMCCarboxymethyl cellulosePMIPolymethacryloimide
CNCellulose nitratePMPPoly- 4 -methylpentene-1
CPCellulose propionatePOMPolyoxymethylene, polyacetal
CPEChlorinated polyethylene (correctly:PEC)PPPolypropylene
CPVCChlorinated polyvinylchloride (correctly:PVCC)PPCChlorinated polypropylene
CRChloroprene rubberPPMSPolyparamethylstyrene
CSCaseinPPO(S)Polyphenylene oxide (styrene)
CSMChlorosulfonated polyethylenePPOXPolypropylene oxide
CTACellulose triacetatePPSPolyphenylene sulfide
DAPDiallyl phthalatePPSUPolyphenylene sulfone
ECEthyl cellulosePSPolystyrene
ECBEthylene-cop-bitumenPSBStyrene butadiene rubber
ECTFEEthylene-chlorotrifluoro- ethylenePSUPolysulfone
EEAEthylene-ethylacrylatePTFEPolytetrafluorethylene
EMAEthylene-methacrylic acidPTPPolyterephthalates
EPEpoxy epoxidePURPolyurethane
EPDMEthylene-propylene teropolymer rubberPVACPolyvinyl acetate
EPMEthylene-propylene rubberPVALPolyvinyl alcohol
EPSExpanded polystyrenePVBPolyvinyl butyral
ETFEEthylene-tetrafluroethylenePVCPolyvinyl chloride
EVA, EVACEthylene-vinyl acetatePVCAPolyvinyl chloride-acetate
FEPPerfluoro ethylene-propylenePVCCChlorinated polyvinyl chloride
FFFuran formaldehydePVDCPolyvinylidene chloride
GR-IButyl rubberPVDFPolyvinylidene fluoride
GR-NNitrile rubberPVFMPolyvinyl formal
GR-SStyrene-butadiene rubberPVKPolyvinyl carbazole
IIRButyl rubberPVPPolyvinyl pyrrolidone
IPDIIsophorone diisocyanateRFResorcin formaldehyde
IRCis-1, 4-polyisoprene rubberSANStyrene-acylonitrile
MBSMethylmethacrylate- butadiene- styreneSBStyrene-butadiene
MCMethyl celluloseSBRStyrene-butadiene rubber
MDIDiphenylmethane diisocyanateSISilicone plastics
MFMelamine formaldehydeSiSilicone rubber
MMAMethylmethacrylateSMAStyrene-maleic anhydride
MPFMelamine-phenol- formaldehydeSMSStyrene – methylstyrene
NBRNitrile rubberSRPStyrene-rubber-plastics
NCCellulose nitrateTACTriallylcyanurate
NRNatural rubberTFAFluor-alkoxy-terpolymer
PAPolyamide (nylon)TDIToluyl diisocyanate
PAAPolyacrylic acidTMDITrimethyl-hexamethylene diisocyanate
PAIPoly-amideimideTPUThermoplastic polyurethane
PAKPolyester alkydTPXPolymethylpentene
PANPolyacrylonitrileUFUrea formaldehyde
PBPolybutene-lUPUnsaturated polyester
PBANPolybutadiene-acrylonitrileVACVinyl acetate
PBSPolybutadiene-styreneVCVinyl chloride
PBTPPolybutylene therephthalateVCEVinyl chloride-ethylene
PCPolycarbonateVCEVAVinyl chloride-ethylene- vinyl acetate
PCDPolycarbodiimideVCOAVinyl chloride-octylacrylate
PCTFEPolymonochlorotri fluoroethyleneVCVACVinyl chloride-vinyl acetate
PDAPPolydiallyl phthalateVCVDLVinyl chloride-vinylidene chloride
PEPolyethyleneVFVulcanized fibre
PECChlorinated polyethylene
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